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By: Nishtha Trivedi

Terrorism is like other atrocious types of violence, has implored in the minds of many for a psychological explanation. The systematic analysis and research that has been done on the topic, however, show that neither mental infirmity nor a simple “lack of conscience” are significant primary causes of terrorism.

Terrorism does not have a précised definition, neither it is legally defined in all jurisdiction. It changes as per the time. It was believed that the terrorism word was originated during the Reign of Terror in France in 1790s Terrorism is known for creating violence and to create an atmosphere of fear and to bring out a political objective. Terrorism is been practiced by political organisation, nationalistic and regional group, by revolutionaries and even by armies, intelligence service and police. Terrorism implies an act of violence by a state against its domestic enemies. As the statutes do exist for terrorism but is not legally defined by every jurisdiction.

Terrorism not just involves the use or threat of violence but also seeks to create fear among wide audience. To say terrorism in a proper manner one can, say that the calculated use of violence to generate fear and achieve goals, when direct military victory is not possible. Terrorism includes suicide bombing, car bombing, mass shooting, hijacking and hostage takings. Terrorist engage in high profile, violent and dramatic attacks in order to attract and maintain the publicity to generate wide – spread fear. The victim and locations of terrorist attacks are selected very carefully to give shock value. Schools, shopping centres, bus and train stations and nightclubs are been targeted as they are largely crowded and civilians feel easy come over there. The general objective of terrorism is to destroy the public’s sense of security in the places most familiar to them.

Terrorism means the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. It is primarily used to refer the violence during peacetime or in the context of war where all the innocent citizens are killed brutally. Terrorists are the most inhuman people whose job is to kill people on purpose. The main motive of these people is to kill no matter of what age group that person belongs to it can be any aged person. Now a day’s terrorism has reached its highest peak. Nobody is safe in today's world. Terrorism is such a brutal act and it is increasing so much that it is next to impossible to remove this heinous crime from its roots. The roots of terrorism are so deep and hard that now it seems that it will never be able to remove this act of terrorism.

The terrorism is of different kinds which includes right-wing and left-wing political organisations, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling government. If we see terrorism in different context then terrorism is not that which is done by terrorist only. But we have many politicians who is indulged into corruption and reform such activities are also considered as terrorism. Legislation has already declared terrorism as a crime and it is also adopted by many states. We have another example of terrorism which is state terrorism. State terrorism is referred to the acts of terrorism conducted by a state against its own citizens or against another state.

The Terrorism was practiced since history throughout the world by state and non – state actors. banishment, expropriation of property, and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule were used by Tiberius and Caligula who were Roman Emperors reigned from 14 to 41 CE. There was a drastic change in 20th century regarding the use and practice of terror. As the technologies has become advanced the use and types of weapons has also become advanced, automatic weapons, compact electrically detonated explosives etc. This advanced technology has given terrorists a new lethality, mobility and growth of air travel which provided new methods and opportunities to destroy human kinds. Earlier terrorism was a virtually an official policy in totalitarian states (e.g. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and Soviet Union under Stalin). These states started arresting, imprisonment, torture and execute the terrorists. These was carried out without and official or legal guidance or restraints just for creating an environment of fear and to encourage adherence to the ideologies of nation and the declared goals (e.g. economic goals, social goals and political goals) of the state. Terrorism has become a very critical thing for all the states past many years.

Now - a - days easy access to the sophisticated weapons and disruptive advances in technology, especially the cyber worlds mask the identity of the terrorist. Cyber world actually facilitates the secure network of communication and operating the mission also the funding and access to unlimited resources and information regarding the making of weapon or bomb to the executing the same. All this aspect has made terrorism the most preferred means of waging war as terrorists have all the power in their hand and there is usually minimum collateral damage to the terrorist’s groups. After knowing the threat and the depth of the threat, the international community are still fa away from reaching a consensus on how to fight or how to tackle these types of groups collectively.

In India, the terrorism and violent extremism is being usually related to the religious confilicts after the partition in 1947 which divided the nation in 2 parts ( that is India and Pakistan) which kind of on the basis of religion (that is Hindus and Muslims respectively). It led to the most horrified ethnic riots in modern history. After the partition, the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir (Hari Singh) formally said to be the part of India and not of Pakistan even though Jammu and Kashmir are Muslim majority region. This became a base issue of the conflict between two nations. There was an on – going border conflict between India and Pakistan, India saw that Pakistan was sponsoring militant activity in the Jammu and Kashmir as well as to the other parts of the country due to the conflict, which led terrorism as a new manifestation in the politics which means that it has became an most important part of the discussion as terrorism risks the life of innocent people of the country.

In India, the primary cause of terrorism is actually based on the few aspects which are as follows: -

i. political

ii. religious

iii. ethnic

iv. ideologies

v. identity

vi. socio-economic grievances.

India usually remains as highly vulnerable to terrorism due to the geographical features, that is due to the porous borders with all neighbours and also having long coast line around the country which results in continuous flow of the money, equipment and materials. Also, it becomes much easier for the terrorist to enter the country.

India has almost experienced all the forms of terrorist’s attacks be it hijacking and blowing up of air planes, or bombing railway tracks, or kidnapping and hostages for fulfilment of the political demands, or assassinating two prime ministers, or attacking at the crowded place or places of worship or security forces or bus stands or financial hubs, or communal riots and many more. India has faced attacks and violence not only by religious terrorists’ groups but non- religious terrorists’ groups too. The modus operandi of terrorism has remained dynamic to achieve its goals and objectives.

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